Factor Structure of a Self-Report Questionnaire Determining the Epistemic Beliefs of Primary School and Kindergarten Student Teachers in the Science Domain

Roč.27,č.2(2022)
Studia paedagogica: Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

Abstrakt

The presented empirical study deals with the issue of the epistemic beliefs of primary school and kindergarten student teachers in the science domain. In relation to science education, epistemic beliefs are closely connected with the concept of nature of science (NOS). The aim of the study was to find and analyze the factor structure of the translated self- report questionnaire “Epistemic Beliefs About Science” (EBS) in the Czech sociocultural environment. The EBS was translated as recommended for cross-cultural research and then piloted in March 2021. The main data collection was conducted online via Google Forms in May 2021 through convenience sampling (N = 427) at six universities in the Czech Republic. We performed a confirmatory factor analysis to verify the model. Fit indices reached acceptable or good values for acceptance of the generated model (CFI = .955, TLI = .945, RMSEA = .060, SRMR = .052). Correlations between individual dimensions are also presented. The reliability for both the original form of the instrument and for the resulting model was higher than 0.75 for all subscales. The results are discussed in the context of foreign empirical studies. It can be stated that the modified version of the EBS is applicable in the Czech sociocultural environment for the research sample.


Klíčová slova:
science education; epistemic beliefs; factor analysis; student teacher; nature of science

Stránky:
97–129
Reference

[1] Abd-El-Khalick, F., Myers, J. Y., Summers, R., Brunner, J., Waight, N., Wahbeh, N., Zeineddin, A. A., & Belarmino, J. (2017). A longitudinal analysis of the extent and manner of representations of nature of science in U.S. high school biology and physics textbooks. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 54(1), 82–120. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21339

[2] Akerson, V. L., Cullen, T. A., & Hanson, D. L. (2009). Fostering a community of practice through a professional development program to improve elementary teachers’ views of nature of science and teaching practice. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(10), 1090–1113. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20303

[3] Akerson, V. L., & Volrich, M. (2006). Teaching nature of science explicitly in a first grade internship setting. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43(4), 377–394. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20132

[4] Akkus, R., Gunel, M., & Hand, B. (2007). Comparing an inquiry based approach known as the science writing heuristic to traditional science teaching practices: Are there differences? International Journal of Science Education, 29(14), 1745–1765. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690601075629

[5] Alexander, P. A. (2005). Teaching towards expertise. In P. Tomlinson, J. Dockrell, & P. Winne (Eds.), Pedagogy-teaching for learning (pp. 29–45). British Psychological Society.

[6] Alpaslan, M. M. (2019). Examining relations between physics‐related personal epistemology and motivation in terms of gender. The Journal of Educational Research, 112(3), 397–410. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.2018.1540966

[7] Bahçivan, E. (2014). Examining relationships among Turkish preservice science teachers’ conceptions of teaching and learning, scientific epistemological beliefs and science teaching efficacy beliefs. Journal of Baltic Science Education, 13(6), 870–882. https://doi.org/10.33225/jbse/14.13.870

[8] Barger, M. M., Perez, T., Canelas, D. A., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2018). Constructivism and personal epistemology development in undergraduate chemistry students. Learning and Individual Differences, 63, 89–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2018.03.006

[9] Bartels, J. M., & Magun-Jackson, S. (2009). Approach–avoidance motivation and metacognitive self-regulation: The role of need for achievement and fear of failure. Learning and Individual Differences, 19(4), 459–463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2009.03.008

[10] Barnes, N., Fives, H., Mabrouk-Hattab, S., & SaizdeLaMora, K. (2020). Teachers’ epistemic cognition in situ: Evidence from classroom assessment. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101837

[11] Barzilai, S., & Ka'adan, I. (2017). Learning to integrate divergent information sources: The interplay of epistemic cognition and epistemic metacognition. Metacognition Learning, 12(2), 193–232. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-016-9165-7

[12] Barzilai, S., & Weinstock, M. (2015). Measuring epistemic thinking within and across topics: A scenario-based approach. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 42, 141–158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2015.06.006

[13] Bendixen, L. D. (2016). Teaching for epistemic change in elementary classrooms. In J. A. Greene, W. A. Sandoval, & I. Bråten (Eds.), Handbook of epistemic cognition (pp. 281–299). Routledge.

[14] Bendixen, L. D., Schraw, G., & Dunkle, M. E. (1998). Epistemic beliefs and moral reasoning. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 132(2), 187–200. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223989809599158

[15] Bråten, I., Britt, M. A., Strømsø, H. I., & Rouet, J.-F. (2011). The role of epistemic beliefs in the comprehension of multiple expository texts: Toward an integrated model. Educational Psychologist, 46(1), 48–70. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2011.538647

[16] Bråten I., & Strømsø H. I. (2005). The relationship between epistemological beliefs, implicit theories of intelligence, and self-regulated learning among Norwegian postsecondary students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75(4), 539–565. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709905X25067

[17] Bromme, R., Pieschl, S., & Stahl, E. (2010). Epistemological beliefs are standards for adaptive learning: A functional theory about epistemological beliefs and metacognition. Metacognition and Learning, 5(1), 7–26. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-009-9053-5

[18] Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (2nd Ed.). Guilford Press.

[19] Cano, F. (2005). Epistemological beliefs and approaches to learning: Their change through secondary school and their influence on academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75(2), 203–221. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709904X22683

[20] Cam, A., Topcu, M. S., Sulun, Y., Guven, G., & Arabacioglu, S. (2012). Translation and validation of the Epistemic Belief Inventory with Turkish pre-service teachers. Educational Research and Evaluation, 18(5), 441–458. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803611.2012.689726

[21] Cazan, A.-M. (2013). Validity of the discipline focused epistemological beliefs questionnaire (DFEBQ) on a Romanian sample. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 78, 713–717. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.04.381

[22] Chen, B. (2017). Fostering scientific understanding and epistemic beliefs through judgments of promisingness. Educational Technology Research and Development, 65(2), 255–277. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-016-9467-0

[23] Cheng, M. M. H., Chan, K. W., Tang, S. Y. F., & Cheng, A. Y. N. (2009). Pre-service teacher education students’ epistemological beliefs and their conceptions of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(2), 319–327. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tate.2008.09.018

[24] Chinn, C. A., Buckland, L. A., & Samarapungavan, A. (2011). Expanding the dimensions of epistemic cognition: Arguments from philosophy and psychology. Educational Psychologist, 46(3), 141–167. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2011.587722

[25] Chinn, C. A., & Rinehart, R. W. (2016). Developing a new framework for epistemic cognition. In J. A. Greene, W. A. Sandoval, & Bråten, I. (Eds.), Handbook of epistemic cognition (pp. 460–478). Routledge.

[26] Chiou, G. L., Lee, M. H., & Tsai, C. C. (2013). High school students' approaches to learning physics with relationship to epistemic views on physics and conceptions of learning physics. Research in Science & Technological Education, 31(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/02635143.2013.794134

[27] Conley, A. M., Pintrich, P. R., Vekiri, I., & Harrison, D. (2004). Changes in epistemological beliefs in elementary science students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29(2), 186–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2004.01.004

[28] Demirbağ, M., & Bahçivan, E. (2021). Comprehensive exploration of digital literacy: Embedded with self-regulation and epistemological beliefs. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 30, 448–459. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-020-09887-9

[29] Deng, F., Chai, C. S., So, H.-J., Qian, Y. Y., & Chen, L. L. (2017). Examining the validity of the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework for preservice chemistry teachers. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(3), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.3508

[30] Deng, F., Chai, C. S., Tsai, C. C., & Lee, M. H. (2014). The relationships among Chinese practicing teachers’ epistemic beliefs, pedagogical beliefs and their beliefs about the use of ICT. Educational Technology & Society, 17(2), 245–246.

[31] Deng, F., Chen, D., Tsai, C. C., & Chai, C. S. (2011). Students’ views of the nature of science: A critical review of the research. Science Education, 95(6), 961–999. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20460

[32] Ding, L. (2014). Verification of causal influences of reasoning skills and epistemology on physics conceptual learning. Physical Review Special Topics Physics Education Research, 10(2), 023101. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevSTPER.10.023101

[33] DiStefano, C., & Hess, B. (2005). Using confirmatory factor analysis for construct validation: An empirical review. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 23(3), 225–241. https://doi.org/10.1177/073428290502300303

[34] Elby, A., & Hammer, D. (2001). On the substance of a sophisticated epistemology. Science Education, 85(5), 554–567. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.1023

[35] Elby, A., Macrander, C., & Hammer, D. (2016). Epistemic cognition in science: Uncovering old roots to turn over new leaves. In J. A. Greene, W. A. Sandoval, & I. Bråten (Eds.), Handbook of epistemic cognition (pp. 113–127). Routledge.

[36] Elder, A. D. (2002). Characterizing fifth grade students´ epistemological beliefs in science. In P. R. Pintrich (Ed.), Personal epistemology: The psychology of beliefs about knowledge and knowing (pp. 347–364). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

[37] Felbrich, A., Kaiser, G., & Schmotz, C. (2012). The cultural dimension of beliefs: An investigation of future primary teachers’ epistemological beliefs concerning the nature of mathematics in 15 countries. ZDM Mathematics Education, 44, 355–366. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11858-012-0418-x

[38] Ferguson, L. E., Bråten, I., Strømsø, H. I., & Anmarkrud, Ø. (2013). Epistemic beliefs and comprehension in the context of reading multiple documents: Examining the role of conflict. International Journal of Educational Research, 62, 100–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2013.07.001

[39] Feucht, F. (2017). The epistemic beliefs of fourth graders about the verification of second-hand knowledge and its knowledge sources. Journal of Education and Human Development, 6(1), 7–26. https://doi.org/10.15640/jehd.v6n1a2

[40] Greene, J. A., Azevedo, R., & Torney-Purta, J. (2008). Modeling epistemic and ontological cognition: Philosophical perspectives and methodological directions. Educational Psychologist, 43(3), 142–160. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520802178458

[41] Greene, J. A., Cartiff, B. M., & Duke, R. F. (2018). A meta-analytic review of the relationship between epistemic cognition and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(8), 1084–1111. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000263

[42] Greene, J. A., Torney-Purta, J., & Azevedo, R. (2010). Empirical evidence regarding relations among a model of epistemic and ontological cognition, academic performance, and educational level. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(1), 234–255. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017998

[43] Greene, J. A., & Yu, S. B. (2014). Modeling and measuring epistemic cognition: A qualitative re-investigation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39(1), 12–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2013.10.002

[44] Hammer, D., & Elby, A. (2003). Tapping epistemological resources for learning physics. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12(1), 53–90. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327809JLS1201_3

[45] Hamamura, T., Heine, S. J., & Paulhus, D. L. (2008). Cultural differences in response styles: The role of dialectical thinking. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(4), 932–942. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.10.034

[46] Hanuscin, D. L., Lee, M. H., & Akerson, V. L. (2010). Elementary teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge for teaching the nature of science. Science Education, 95(1), 145–167. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20404

[47] Harrington, D. (2008). Confirmatory factor analysis. Oxford University Press.

[48] Harris, P. L. (2001). Thinking about the unknown. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 5(11), 494–498. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01789-7

[49] Hashweh, M. (1996). Effects of science teachers’ epistemological beliefs in teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33(1), 47–63. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2736(199601)33:1<47::AID-TEA3>3.0.CO;2-P

[50] Hatfield, D. (2015). The right kind of telling: An analysis of feedback and learning in a journalism epistemic game. International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, 7(2), 1–23. https://doi.org/10.4018/IJGCMS.2015040101

[51] Hayes, A. F., & Coutts, J. J. (2020). Use omega rather than Cronbach’s alpha for estimating reliability, but …Communication Methods and Measures, 14(1), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/19312458.2020.1718629

[52] Herrenkohl, L. R., Palincsar, A. S., DeWater, L. S., & Kawasaki, K. (1999). Developing scientific communities in classrooms: A sociocognitive approach. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 8(3–4), 451–493. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508406.1999.9672076

[53] Herrenkohl, L. R., Tasker, T., & White, B. (2011). Pedagogical practices to support classroom cultures of scientific inquiry. Cognition & Instruction, 29(1), 1–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/07370008.2011.534309

[54] Hofer, B. K. (2004). Epistemological understanding as a metacognitive process: Thinking aloud during online searching. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 43–55. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep3901_5

[55] Hofer, B. K. (2000). Dimensionality and disciplinary differences in personal epistemology. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(4), 378–405. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1026

[56] Hofer, B. K., & Pintrich, P. R. (1997). The development of epistemological theories: Beliefs about knowledge and knowing and their relation to learning. Review of Educational Research, 67(1), 88–140. https://doi.org/10.2307/1170620

[57] Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. McGraw-Hill.

[58] Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

[59] Huang, W. Y., & Wong, S. H. (2014). Cross-cultural validation. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research (pp. 1369–1371). Springer.

[60] Hsu, C.-Y., Tsai, M.-J., Hou, H.-T., & Tsai, C.-C. (2014). Epistemic beliefs, online search strategies, and behavioral patterns while exploring socioscientific issues. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 23(3), 471–480. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-013-9477-1

[61] Jehng, J. J., Johnson, S. D., & Anderson, R. C. (1993). Schooling and students' epistemological beliefs about learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18(1), 23–35. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1993.1004

[62] Juklová, K. (2020). Osobní epistemologie budoucího učitele: Predikce a podpora studijních procesů a výsledků. Grada.

[63] Kampa, N., Neumann, I., Heitmann, P., & Kremer, K. (2016). Epistemological beliefs in science – a person-centered approach to investigate high school students’ profiles. Cotemporary Educational Psychology, 46, 81–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2016.04.007

[64] Karabenick, S. A., Wooley, E. M., Friedel, J. M., Ammon, B. V., Blazevski, J., Bonney, Ch. R., De Groot, E., Gilbert, M. C., Musu, L., Kempler, T. M., & Kelly, K. L. (2007). Cognitive processing of self-report items in educational research: Do they think what we mean? Educational Psychologist, 42(3), 139–151. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520701416231

[65] Kawasaki, K., Herrenkohl, L. R., & Yeary, S. (2004). Theory building and modeling in a sinking and floating unit: A case study of third and fourth grade students’ developing epistemologies of science. International Journal of Science Education, 26(11), 1299–1324. https://doi.org/10.1080/0950069042000177226

[66] Kienhues, D., Ferguson, L., & Stahl, E. (2016). Diverging information and epistemic change. In J. A. Greene, W. A. Sandoval, & I. Bråten (Eds.), Handbook of epistemic cognition (pp. 318–330). Routledge.

[67] King, P. M., & Kitchener, K. S. (1994). Developing reflective judgment: Understanding and promoting intellectual growth and critical thinking in adolescent and adults. Jossey-Bass.

[68] Kitchener, K. S., & King, P. M. (1981). Reflective judgment: Concepts of justification and their relationship to age and education. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 2(2), 89–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/0193-3973(81)90032-0

[69] Klassen, M. R., Bong, M., Usher, L. E., Chong, H. W., Huan, S. V., Wong, F. Y. I., & Georgiou, T. (2009). Exploring the validity of a teachers’ self-efficacy scale in five countries. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34, 67–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.08.001

[70] Kuhn, D. (1991). The skills of argument. Cambridge University Press.

[71] Kuhn, D., & Weinstock, M. (2002). What is epistemological thinking and why does it matter? In B. K. Hofer & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology: The psychology of beliefs about knowledge and knowing (pp. 121–144). Erlbaum.

[72] Lang, F., Kammerer, Y., Stürmer, K., & Gerjets, P. (2020). Investigating professed and enacted epistemic beliefs about the uncertainty of scientific knowledge when students evaluate scientific controversies. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 36, 125–146. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-020-00471-8

[73] Lederman, N. G. (2007). Nature of science: Past, present and future. In S. K. Abell & N. G. Lederman (Eds.), Handbook of research on science education (pp. 831–880). Erlbaum.

[74] Lee, S. W.‐Y., Luan, H., Lee, M.‐H., Chang, H.‐Y., Liang, J.‐C., Lee, Y.‐H., Lin, T.‐J., Wu, A.‐H., Chiu, Y.‐J., & Tsai, C.‐C. (2021). Measuring epistemologies in science learning and teaching: A systematic review of the literature. Science Education, 105(5), 880–907. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.21663

[75] Liang, J.-C., & Tsai, C.-C. (2010). Relational analysis of college science-major students’ epistemological beliefs toward science and conceptions of learning science. International Journal of Science Education, 32(17), 2273–2289. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690903397796

[76] Lin, T.-J., Deng, F., Chai, C. S., & Tsai, C.-C. (2013). High school students’ scientific epistemological beliefs, motivation in learning science, and their relationships: A comparative study within the Chinese culture. International Journal of Educational Development, 33(1), 37–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2012.01.007

[77] Lising, L., & Elby, A. (2005). The impact of epistemology on learning: A case study from introductory physics. American Journal of Physics, 73(4), 372–382. https://doi.org/10.1119/1.1848115

[78] MŠMT. (2021). Informace k provozu škol od 12. dubna 2021. https://www.msmt.cz/informace-k-provozu-skol-od-12-dubna-2021

[79] Muis, K. R. (2007). The role of epistemic beliefs in self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 42(3), 173–190. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520701416306

[80] Muis, K. R., Bendixen, L. D., & Haerle, F. C. (2006). Domain-generality and domain-specificity in personal epistemology research: Philosophical and empirical reflections in the development of a theoretical framework. Educational Psychology Review, 18(1), 3–54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-006-9003-6

[81] Muis, K. R., Trevors, G., & Chevrier, M. (2016). Epistemic climate for epistemic change. In J. A. Greene, W. A. Sandoval, & I. Bråten (Eds.), Handbook of epistemic cognition (pp. 331–358). Routledge.

[82] Murphy, P. K., Alexander, P. A., Greene, J. A., & Edwards, M. N. (2007). Epistemological threads in the fabric of conceptual change research. In S. Vosniadou, A. Baltas, & X. Vamvakoussi (Eds.), Reframing the conceptual change approach in learning and instruction (pp. 105–122). Elsevier.

[83] Norton, L., Richardson, J. T. E., Hartley, J., Newstead, S., & Mayes, J. (2005). Teachers’ beliefs and intentions concerning teaching in higher education. Higher Education, 50, 537–571. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-004-6363-z

[84] Novela školského zákona č. 561/2004Sb., & 184a, Zákon o předškolním, základním, středním, vyšším odborném a jiném vzdělávání.

[85] Ordoñez, X. G., Ponsoda, V., Abad, F. J., & Romero, S. J. (2009). Measurement of epistemological beliefs: Psychometric properties of the EQEBI test scores. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69(2), 287–302. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164408323226

[86] Pirttilä-Backman, A. M., & Kajanne, A. (2001). The development of implicit epistemologies during early and middle adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 8(2), 81–97. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026441801408

[87] Peter, J., Rosman, T., Mayer, A-K., Leichner, N., & Krampen, G. (2016). Assessing epistemic sophistication by considering domain-specific absolute and multiplistic beliefs separately. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(2), 204–221. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12098

[88] Peters-Burton, E. E. (2016). Scientists taking a nature of science course: Beliefs and learning outcomes of career switchers. School Science and Mathematics, 116(3), 148–163. https://doi.org/10.1111/ssm.12161

[89] Pamuk, S., Sungur, S., & Oztekin, C. (2017). A multilevel analysis of students' science achievements in relation to their self-regulation, epistemological beliefs, learning environment perceptions, and teachers' personal characteristics. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 15(8), 1423–1440. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10763-016-9761-7

[90] Perry, W. G. (1970). Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years: A scheme. Holt.

[91] Rukavina, I., & Daneman, M. (1996). Integration and its effect on acquiring knowledge about competing scientific theories for text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 272–287. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.88.2.272

[92] Samarapungavan, A., Westby, E. L., & Bodner, G. M. (2006). Contextual epistemic development in science: A comparison of chemistry students and research chemists. Science Education, 90(3), 468–495. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20111

[93] Sandoval, W. A., & Cam, A. (2010). Elementary children’s judgments of the epistemic status of source of justification. Science Education, 95(3), 383–408. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.20426

[94] Shaakumeni, S. S. (2019). Assessing the suitability of the adapted scientific epistemic beliefs questionnaire in Namibia. Journal of Studies in Education, 9(2), 62–79. https://doi.org/10.5296/jse.v9i2.14704

[95] Shreiner, T. L. (2014). Using historical knowledge to reason about contemporary political issues: An expert-novice study. Cognition & Instruction, 32(4), 313–352. https://doi.org/10.1080/07370008.2014.948680

[96] Scharrer, L., Bromme, R., Britt, M. A., & Stadtler, M. (2012). The seduction of easiness: How science depictions influence laypeople’s reliance on their own evaluation of scientific information. Learning and Instruction, 22(3), 231–243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.11.004

[97] Schiefer, J., Golle, J., Tibus, M., Herbein, E., Gindele, V., Trautwein, U., & Oschatz, K. (2020). Effects of an extracurricular science intervention on elementary school children’s epistemic beliefs: A randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 382–402. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12301

[98] Schommer, M. (1990). Effects of beliefs about the nature of knowledge on comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(3), 498–504. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.82.3.498

[99] Schommer, M. (1993). Epistemological development and academic performance among secondary students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(3), 406–411. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.85.3.406

[100] Schommer-Aikins, M. (2004). Explaining the epistemological belief system: Introducing the embedded systemic model and coordinated research approach. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 19–29. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep3901_3

[101] Schommer-Aikins, M., Duell, O. K., & Barker, S. (2002). Epistemological beliefs across domains using Biglan’s classification of academic disciplines. Research in Higher Education, 44(3), 347–366.

[102] Schraw, G. (2013). Conceptual integration and measurement of epistemological and ontological beliefs in educational research. ISRN Education, 1, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/327680

[103] Schraw, G., Bendixen, L. D., & Dunkle, M. E. (2002). Development and validation of the epistemic belief inventory (EBI). In B. K. Hofer & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology: The psychology of beliefs about knowledge and knowing (pp. 261–275). Erlbaum.

[104] Schraw, G., & Olafson, L. (2003). Teachers’ epistemological world views and educational practices. Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 3(2), 178–235. https://doi.org/10.1891/194589503787383109

[105] Smith, C. L., Maclin, D., Houghton, C., & Hennessey, M. G. (2000). Sixth-grade students’ epistemologies of science: The impact of school science experiences on epistemological development. Cognition & Instruction, 18(3), 349–422. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532690XCI1803_3

[106] Solomon, J., Scott, L., & Duveen, J. (1996). Large-scale exploration of pupils´ understanding of the nature of science. Science Education, 80(5), 493–508.

[107] Stoel, G., Logtenberg, A., Wansink, B., Huijgen, T., Boxtel, C., & Drie, J. (2017). Measuring epistemological beliefs in history education: An exploration of naïve and nuanced beliefs. International Journal of Educational Research, 83, 120–134.

[108] Tsai, C. (2002). Nested epistemologies: Science teachers’ beliefs of teaching, learning, and science. International Journal of Science Education, 24(8), 771–783. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690110049132

[109] Tsai, C.‐C., & Liu, S.‐Y. (2005). Developing a multi‐dimensional instrument for assessing students' epistemological views toward science. International Journal of Science Education, 27(13), 1621–1638. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500690500206432

[110] VanSledright, B. A. (2002). In search of America’s past: Learning to read history in elementary school. Teachers College Press.

[111] Wallace, C. S., & Kang, N. (2004). An investigation of experienced secondary science teachers’ beliefs about inquiry: An examination of competing belief sets. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(9), 936–960. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20032

[112] Wiley, J., Griffin, T. D., Steffens, B., & Britt, M. A. (2020). Epistemic beliefs about the value of integrating information across multiple documents in history. Learning & Instruction, 65, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2019.101266

[113] Wu, D., Liao, T., Yang, W., & Li, H. (2020). Exploring the relationships between scientific epistemic beliefs, science teaching beliefs and science-specific PCK among pre-service kindergarten teachers in China. Early Education and Development, 32(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2020.1771971

[114] Yang, F.-Y., Bhagat, K. K., & Cheng, Ch.-H. (2019). Associations of epistemic beliefs in science and scientific reasoning in university students from Taiwan and India. International Journal of Science Education, 41(10), 1347–1365.

[115] Yang, F. Y. (2016). Learners’ epistemic beliefs and their relations with science learning – Exploring the cultural differences. In M. H. Chiu (Ed.), Science education research and practices in Taiwan (pp. 133–146). Springer.

[116] Yang, F. Y., Chang, C. C., Chen, L. L., & Chen, Y. C. (2016). Exploring learners’ beliefs about science reading and scientific epistemic beliefs, and their relations with science text understanding. International Journal of Science Education, 38(10), 1591–1606. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2016.1200763

[117] Yang, F. Y., Chen, Y. H., & Tsai, M. L. (2013). How university students evaluate online information about a socio-scientific issue and the relationship with their epistemic beliefs. Educational Technology & Society, 16(3), 385–399.

[118] Yildiran, D., Demirci, N., Tüysüz, M., Bektas, O., & Geban, Ö. (2011). Adaptation of an epistemological belief instrument towards chemistry and chemistry lessons. In WCES Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 3718–3722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.362

Metriky

0

0


31

Views

0

PDF (English) views